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WalterBep    19 January 2018 10:36
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EbonyTus    19 January 2018 10:03
Отличие вышек-тур от строительных лесов
Строительные вышки туры, по сути, имеют такое же назначение, как и строительные леса, но отличаются от них жесткостью конструкции, позволяющей выставлять вышки на высоту, не закрепляясь к фасаду. Это значительно расширяет сферу их применения при локальных строительных работах, как на фасаде, так и при монтажных работах с перекрытиями.
Благодаря своей сборно-разборной конструкции, оснащенной колесами на жестком основании вышки туры позволяют достаточно быстро производить их установку и демонтаж, а также имеют высокую мобильность и легкую транспортабельность, что зачастую является необходимым условием при внутренней отделке строительных объектов. Смотрите цены и характеристики, покупайте:
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В целях безопасности работников вышки оснащены опорными винтами, которые регулируют вертикальное положение, когда вышка тура используется на неровной поверхности и стабилизаторами, которые надежно фиксируют конструкцию при работе на большой высоте. Настил, на котором находятся рабочие, снабжен боковыми ограждениями, что обеспечивает дополнительную безопасность.
Так же вышки-туры передвижные оборудованы колесами, выполненными из высокопрочного материала, которые выдерживают общую распределенную нагрузку до 720 кг. и фиксируются тормозами.
Разные размеры и ярусная, модульная конструкция строительных вышек позволяют выбрать именно тот вариант, который максимально подойдет для выполнения необходимых Вам работ.

Jameseveds    19 January 2018 09:59
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Charleshiz    18 January 2018 16:38
Децентрализованная цифровая валюта биткоин к настоящему моменту обрела потрясающую популярность. Разумеется, главная причина этого - ее высокий курс. Совсем недавно за одну монету можно было выручить более 20 тыс. долларов США. Соответственно, обладая всего несколькими биткоинами можно было считать себя состоятельным человеком. В настоящий момент курс биткоина ощутимо просел, но все же имеет высокие шансы вновь побить рекорды.
Но у биткоина имеются и другие особенности, делающие эту криптовалюту крайне заманчивой для широких масс.
Децентрализация
Нет единого центра, занимающегося эмиссией биткоинов и контролем над ними. Добыча биткоинов осуществляется в результате выполнения сложных математических вычислений на компьютере. При этом любой участвующий в этом компьютер считается равноправным участником криптовалютной сети. Работоспособность системы сохраняется даже при отключении значительной части компьютеров. Подобная децентрализация исключает возможность того, что кто-то станет диктовать свои условия владельцам биткоинов.
Анонимность
Обладателям биткоинов не нужно указывать персональные данные. В том числе и для совершения платежных операций с использованием биткоинов. То есть, гарантируется полная анонимность пользователей криптовалютной сети. Из-за чего данная криптовалюта полюбилась криминальным элементам. А это, в свою очередь, становится поводом для критики криптовалют со стороны государственных структур.
Простота использования
Для открытия расчетного счета в любом банке требуется время и пакет личных документов. В ряде случаев ваш счет могут заблокировать, отказав в дальнейшем оказании услуг. Завести кошелек в криптовалютной сети можно за пять минут, после чего им незамедлительно можно пользоваться. Никаких документов, никаких вопросов.
Минимальные комиссии
В случае банковских международных переводов комиссия может оказаться весьма значительной. При переводе биткоинов в любую точку мира комиссия будет минимальной.
Моментальность переводов
Средства поступят на указанный кошелек сразу же после того, как система обработает платежную операцию.
Нельзя отозвать
После отправки биткоинов отозвать их уже нельзя без согласия получателя. Это исключает возможность махинаций с переводами. Нередки случаи, когда банковские переводы отзываются после совершения сделки.
Прозрачность
Полная история транзакций хранится в системе в виде последовательности цепочки блоков, именуемой блокчейном. И все это на условиях полной анонимности обладателей биткоин-кошельков.
Указанные особенностями привели к тому, что биткоин, а также прочие криптовалюты, обрели сегодняшнюю популярность. Возможность сохранения анонимности привлекает тех, кто не желает внимания к своей персоне со стороны государства.

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Jamesbus    18 January 2018 10:56
A boiler is a closed vessel where water or other liquid is heated. The liquid will not always boil. (In North America, the word "furnace" is generally used if the reason is not to boil the liquid.) The heated or vaporized liquid exits the boiler for use in various heating system or processes applications,[1 - [2 - including water heating, central heating, boiler-based power era, cooking food, and sanitation.

Materials
The pressure vessel of a boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or of wrought iron historically. Stainless steel, especially of the austenitic types, is not found in wetted elements of boilers thanks to stress and corrosion corrosion cracking.[3 - However, ferritic stainless steel is often found in superheater sections that will not come in contact with boiling drinking water, and electrically heated stainless steel shell boilers are allowed under the European "Pressure Equipment Directive" for production of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4 -
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
In live steam models, copper or brass is often used since it is more fabricated in smaller size boilers easily. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (particularly for vapor locomotives), due to its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in more recent times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as steel) are used instead.

For much of the Victorian "age group of steam", the only materials used for boilermaking was the best grade of wrought iron, with assembly by rivetting. This iron was obtained from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), observed for the high quality of their rolled plate and its own suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice shifted towards the use of steel instead, which is stronger and cheaper, with welded construction, which is quicker and requires less labour. It should be noted, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode significantly slower than their modern-day metal counterparts, and are less susceptible to localized pitting and stress-corrosion. This makes the longevity of older wrought-iron boilers considerably more advanced than those of welded steel boilers.

Cast iron might be used for the heating vessel of home water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in a few countries, their purpose is to produce hot water usually, not steam, and they also run at low pressure and try to avoid boiling. The brittleness of cast iron makes it impractical for high-pressure steam boilers.
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Energy
The source of heating for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or gas. Electric steam boilers use level of resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission is also used as a heat source for producing steam, either directly (BWR) or, in most cases, in specialised temperature exchangers called "steam generators" (PWR). High temperature recovery steam generators (HRSGs) use the heat rejected from other processes such as gas turbine.

Boiler efficiency
there are two solutions to gauge the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method

Immediate method -direct approach to boiler efficiency test is more functional or even more common

boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total vapor stream Hg= Enthalpy of saturated steam in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of give food to drinking water in kcal/kg q= quantity of energy use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like pet coke (8200 kcal/KG)

indirect method -to measure the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we are in need of a subsequent parameter like

Ultimate analysis of gas (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint)
percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas
flue gas temperature at outlet
ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg
GCV of gasoline in kcal/kg
ash percentage in combustible fuel
GCV of ash in kcal/kg
Configurations
Boilers can be classified in to the following configurations:

Pot boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" in which a fireplace heats a partially filled water container from below. 18th century Haycock boilers produced and stored large volumes of very low-pressure steam generally, barely above that of the atmosphere often. These could burn off wood or most often, coal. Efficiency was very low.
Flued boiler with one or two large flues-an early forerunner or type of fire-tube boiler.

Diagram of the fire-tube boiler
Fire-tube boiler: Here, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a little volume left above to accommodate the steam (vapor space). This is the type of boiler used in nearly all steam locomotives. The heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be held permanently surrounded by water in order to maintain the heat range of the heating surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of the fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface which can be further increased by making the gases invert direction through another parallel tube or a lot of money of multiple pipes (two-pass or return flue boiler); on the other hand the gases may be studied along the sides and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In case of a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel stretches from the firebox and the hot gases go through a bundle of fire tubes inside the barrel which greatly escalates the heating system surface compared to a single tube and further improves heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers have a comparatively low rate of vapor creation usually, but high vapor storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mostly burn off solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to people of the gas or liquid variety.

Diagram of a water-tube boiler.
Water-tube boiler: In this kind, tubes filled with drinking water are arranged in the furnace in several possible configurations. The water tubes connect large drums Often, the low ones containing water and top of the ones water and steam; in other cases, like a mono-tube boiler, water is circulated by a pump through a succession of coils. This kind generally provides high vapor creation rates, but less storage space capacity than the above. Water pipe boilers can be designed to exploit any temperature source and are generally preferred in high-pressure applications since the high-pressure water/vapor is contained within small size pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall structure.
Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized type of water-tube boiler in which tubes are close together and water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the type of mono-tube steam generator in which the tube is permanently filled with water. Super fast boiler, the pipe is kept so hot that water feed is quickly flashed into steam and superheated. Flash boilers got some use in automobiles in the 19th century which use continued into the early 20th century. .

1950s design vapor locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class
Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes both above types have been mixed in the next manner: the firebox includes an set up of water pipes, called thermic siphons. The gases pass through a typical firetube boiler then. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed - but have fulfilled with little success far away.
Sectional boiler. Inside a ensemble iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" water is included inside cast iron sections.[citation needed - These areas are assembled on site to produce the finished boiler.
Safety
See also: Boiler explosion
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Technical engineers (ASME) develop specifications and regulation codes. For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a standard providing a wide range of guidelines and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with security, design and security standards.[5 -

Historically, boilers were a way to obtain many serious injuries and property destruction as a consequence to badly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while poorly welded or riveted seams could open up, resulting in a violent eruption of the pressurized steam. When water is changed into vapor it expands to over 1,000 times its original quantity and travels down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres per hour. As a result of this, vapor is a superb way of moving energy and high temperature around a site from a central boiler house to where it is necessary, but without the right boiler give food to water treatment, a steam-raising herb are affected from range corrosion and formation. At best, this increases energy costs and can lead to poor quality vapor, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable operation. At worst, it can result in catastrophic failing and lack of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also squirt scalding-hot vapor and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who insert the coal into the fireplace chamber. Extremely large boilers providing a huge selection of horsepower to use factories could demolish entire buildings.[6 -

A boiler that has a loss of give food to water and is permitted to boil dry can be extremely dangerous. If give food to drinking water is sent into the unfilled boiler then, the tiny cascade of inbound water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metallic shell and leads to a violent explosion that can't be managed even by protection steam valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the steam source lines that is larger than the make-up water source could replace. The Hartford Loop was developed in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and Insurance Company as a method to assist in preventing this problem from occurring, and therefore reduce their insurance promises.[7 - [8 -

Superheated steam boiler

A superheated boiler on a steam locomotive.
Main article: Superheater
Most boilers produce steam to be used at saturation temperatures; that is, saturated steam. Superheated steam boilers vaporize the water and then further temperature the steam in a superheater. This provides vapor at much higher heat, but can reduce the overall thermal efficiency of the vapor generating seed because the bigger vapor temperatures requires a higher flue gas exhaust temp.[citation needed - There are several ways to circumvent this problem, by giving an economizer that heats the feed water typically, a combustion air heating unit in the hot flue gas exhaust route, or both. You will find benefits to superheated vapor that may, and will often, increase overall efficiency of both steam generation and its utilization: benefits in input temperatures to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler complication and expense. There can also be useful restrictions in using moist vapor, as entrained condensation droplets will harm turbine blades.

Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any system component fails and allows steam to escape, the temperature and pressure can cause serious, instantaneous harm to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the extreme heat and sound from such a leak clearly indicates its presence.

Superheater procedure is similar to that of the coils on an fresh air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas route in the boiler furnace. The temperature in this area is between 1 typically,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are radiant type; that is, they absorb high temperature by rays. Others are convection type, absorbing temperature from a fluid. Some are a mixture of the two types. Through either method, the extreme temperature in the flue gas route will also high temperature the superheater steam piping and the vapor within. While the temperature of the vapor in the superheater goes up, the pressure of the steam will not and the pressure remains exactly like that of the boiler.[9 - Almost all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to avoid damage to the turbine blading and associated piping.

Supercritical steam generator

Boiler for a charged power place.
Main article: Supercritical steam generator
Supercritical steam generators are used for the production of electric power frequently. They operate at supercritical pressure. As opposed to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical steam generator operates at such a high pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases that occurs; the fluid is liquid nor gas but a super-critical fluid neither. There is no era of vapor bubbles within the water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point at which steam bubbles can develop. As the liquid expands through the turbine stages, its thermodynamic condition drops below the critical point as it does work turning the turbine which turns the electrical generator that power is eventually extracted. The fluid at that time may be considered a mixture of vapor and liquid droplets as it goes by in to the condenser. This results in somewhat less energy use and therefore less greenhouse gas production. The term "boiler" shouldn't be used for a supercritical pressure steam generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this device.
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Accessories
Boiler accessories and fittings
Pressuretrols to control the vapor pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have 2 or 3 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a security by setting the top limit of vapor pressure, the operating pressuretrol, which controls when the boiler fires to keep up pressure, and for boilers outfitted with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which settings the quantity of fire.
Protection valve: It is utilized to relieve pressure and prevent possible explosion of a boiler.
Water level signals: They show the operator the level of fluid in the boiler, also known as a sight glass, water measure or water column.
Bottom level blowdown valves: They offer a way for removing solid particulates that condense and lie on underneath of the boiler. As the name implies, this valve is usually located directly on the bottom of the boiler, and is occasionally opened up to use the pressure in the boiler to press these particulates out.
Constant blowdown valve: This allows a small quantity of water to escape continuously. Its purpose is to prevent water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would business lead to foaming and cause water droplets to be transported over with the vapor - an ailment known as priming. Blowdown is often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler drinking water also.
Trycock: a type of valve that is often use to manually check a water level in a container. Most commonly entirely on a drinking water boiler.
Flash tank: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where the vapor can 'flash' safely and become used in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere while the ambient pressure blowdown flows to drain.
Automatic blowdown/continuous heat recovery system: This system allows the boiler to blowdown only when makeup water is flowing to the boiler, thereby transferring the maximum amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the make-up water. No flash tank is generally needed as the blowdown discharged is near to the heat range of the make-up water.
Hand holes: These are steel plates installed in openings in "header" to allow for inspections & installation of pipes and inspection of inner surfaces.
Vapor drum internals, a series of display, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).
Low-water cutoff: It really is a mechanical means (usually a float change) that is utilized to turn from the burner or shut down gas to the boiler to prevent it from working once the drinking water runs below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burned without drinking water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failing.
Surface blowdown collection: It offers a way for removing foam or other light-weight non-condensible substances that tend to float on top of water inside the boiler.
Circulating pump: It is designed to circulate drinking water back to the boiler after it has expelled a few of its heat.
Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater series. This can be installed to the side of the boiler, below the water level just, or to the very best of the boiler.[10 -
Top give food to: Within this design for feedwater injection, the water is fed to the very best of the boiler. This may reduce boiler fatigue triggered by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over a series of trays the water is quickly warmed and this can reduce limescale.
Desuperheater tubes or bundles: A series of tubes or bundles of pipes in the water drum or the vapor drum made to cool superheated steam, in order to supply auxiliary equipment that will not need, or may be damaged by, dry vapor.
Chemical injection line: A connection to add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.
Steam accessories
Main vapor stop valve:
Steam traps:
Main steam stop/check valve: It can be used on multiple boiler installations.
Combustion accessories
Gas oil system:energy oil heaters
Gas system:
Coal system:
Soot blower
Other essential items
Pressure gauges:
Feed pumps:
Fusible plug:
Inspectors test pressure gauge attachment:
Name dish:
Registration dish:

MichaelDon    18 January 2018 10:11
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RichardChexy    18 January 2018 09:42
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7235
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